A Quick History on Shower Heads

The most natural form of the shower is a waterfall. It was used by most people in the past for bathing. Until now, we still bathe in waterfalls but not on a daily basis. The first mechanical shower was a hand pump that was patented in England in 1767 by William Feetham. It was pumped to force the water into a vessel located above a person’s head. The chain had to be pulled in order to the release the water from the vessel. There were quite a lot of problems with this design though including the possibility of recycling dirty water.

In 1810, this design was drastically improved. The newer version was made from metal pipes that were painted and made to look like bamboo. There was a basin suspended above the pipes that fed water into the nozzle distributing water into the person’s shoulders. The water coming from the ground was drained to ensure no dirty water was recycled. Indoor plumbing was eventually invented making this design even more popular.

Modern showers started in the 1870’s when French army started using them for hygienic purposes. A French doctor created individual baths, replacing communal showers. He believed that it was more economical and hygienic for the users. There were a few showers at first up until people enjoyed using them. The water was heated by the steam engine, making the showers even perfect for users.

Shower heads

Eventually, shower heads were modernised. Back then, we only had fixed shower heads. Now, we can easily adjust shower heads so that they spout water in various directions. Some shower heads can even be removed from their position so that they can be used not just for the head, but other parts of the body.

In short, bathing has never been this comfortable. A lot of people enjoy showers today because of the changes that took place over the years.

Shower filter

You might also find the best Vitamin C shower filter. This seems like a crazy idea, but there are people who make use of this type of shower filter. It is said to have qualities that make bathing healthier. Our body needs Vitamin C for boosting the immune system. We usually eat foods and drinks rich in Vitamin C. This is unique in a sense that the Vitamin C enters the body by bathing. In short, we have come a long way from filthy showers to modern showers with added features.

We should always be grateful to individuals who have worked really hard in order for us to enjoy the hot shower that we have now. Imagine if you lived in the past where access to clean water was really difficult. Now, you just have to turn the shower on and you can start bathing. For sure, there will be more changes in the future. Taking shower as we know now will most likely change for the better. This is something we should all look forward to. The vitamin-infused shower is obviously just the beginning.

Also read: A Guide To The Bramah Tea And Coffee Museum In London

The History of Water Purification

The History of Water Purification

Water is life, but it cannot be taken as it is. Nowadays we all buy water from the shops, a real kind of evolution where water is bought from the counter. We do not drink our tap water; we drink filtered water. So what has changed, from taking water from rivers and lakes to fetching it from the store? Water filtration was initially about improving taste since the link between water and disease had not been discovered. When waterborne diseases became an issue, there was a paradigm shift to water purification to rid water of harmful microbes. With the advancement of technology, people are now drinking water that is 98% pure.

Early purification

Ancient writings from India and Greece dating to 2000 BC contain evidence of individual water treatment methods. The writings show that even then, people knew that heating water was a mode of purification. They were also aware that filtration using gravel and sand, boil and straining would work. The issue then was improving the taste of water. There were no chemical contaminants or knowledge of microbes.

The Egyptians initially discovered the principle of coagulation after 1500 BC. There were pictures found on the tomb walls of Ramses II and Amenophis II showing the use of alum for settlement of suspended particles. Later on, Hippocrates revealed to the world the healing power that water possessed. He came up with the act of sieving water and even made the first filter bag that was supposed to trap the sediments responsible for odours or bad water taste. The period between 300-200 BC saw Archimedes invented the Romans building aqueducts and the water screw.

The Dark Ages

There was a time when there were no innovations or experiments in water supply, hence such methods that existed were less sophisticated. This period is what is referred to as the dark ages. When the Roman Empire came down, the aqueducts went down with them after being destroyed by their enemies. The way forward on water treatment was therefore not known. In 1627 showed positive insights when Sir Francis Bacon initiated seawater desalination. He was trying to rid seawater of salt particles. Unfortunately, he did not succeed, but still he is the trailblazer of such experiments by scientists.

In the 1670s, there seems to be light at the end of the dark tunnel when Antonie van Leeuwenhoek builds a microscope that makes it possible to study the particles in water. In 1676, Van Leeuwenhoek observed microorganisms in water for the first time.


The 1700s saw the first domestic filters being used. The materials were charcoal, wool, and sponge. Robert Thom designed the first municipal water treatment plant, which was then built in Scotland. A horse and cart distributed the water while the water underwent slow sand filtration. Water pipes were then installed three years later after a suggestion that everyone should be able to access clean water. In 1854, there was a discovery that cholera was a waterborne disease. It was also discovered that its outbreak was not so severe in areas where there were sand filters installed. John Snow, a British scientist, found that the water pump had been contaminated by water from the sewer, thus the outbreak. He used chlorine for purification and forged water disinfection. The conclusion was that the taste and smell of water were not enough to determine its safety. Governments then started installing water filters in the municipal. There was also chlorination.

The Americans started constructing large sand filters in the 1890s, and it was a great success. They used rapid sand filtration and made use of powerful steam to clean the filter. Waterborne diseases started becoming less common.

Moving on

The use of chlorine to treat water did not last long as it was associated with respiratory disease, hence the search for other forms of water disinfectants. In 1902, coagulation and disinfection were achieved simultaneously by mixing calcium hypochlorite and ferric chloride in the water supply. In 1903, water was softened in a process known as desalination where cations are removed. Read more about water softeners and their processes are

The French used ozone as a water disinfectant in 1906. From 1914 onwards, there were standards put in place to ensure that all drinking water was safe for the public. The US Clean Water Act was passed in 1972 and 1974; the Safe Drinking Water Act appeared. The aim was to ensure safe drinking water for all. From this period, concerns have shifted from water-borne diseases to manufactured water diseases due to irresponsibility for instance industrial water contamination.

Today scientists do not focus on the purification of water but that of the by-products. Water pipes are corroded, and this exposes water to lead. Lead is linked to cancer. Therefore, as you enjoy your bottle of water, you see how the journey of getting it to you was quite a trip downstream.

Want to learn more about history? Here’s a list of the 5 must see museums in London.

Could self-balancing scooters be used to roam around museums?

scooter-museumsMore and more private spaces and public operations are looking to take advantage of the absolute explosion in self balancing scooter technology, giving their customers every opportunity to leverage this advanced tech to sip around their property.

And while there have been major leaps forward (not only in design, but also in convenience and utilities) for self balancing scooters in places like airports where the use of them is absolutely ideal, other places have been slower to adapt them – and it’s easy to understand why.

Any time you’re talking about a new advanced technology looking to weasel its way into the public conscious you’re going to meet resistance, and people are always going to be looking for the results from early adopters before they follow those pioneers.

If you’ve been wondering whether or not self balancing scooters can be used to roam around museums without any headache or hassle, here are a couple of answers that you’ll appreciate!

Most museums have perfectly smooth floors – ideal for self balancing scooter operation

The overwhelming majority of self balancing scooter options out there today need to take advantage of terrain that is as smooth as it gets and is free from debris as possible.

There just aren’t all that many “off-road” self balancing scooter options on the market (yet, anyway).

This is part of what makes museums so attractive for those that use self balancing scooters on a routine basis. The floors are almost always perfectly flat, just as smooth as can be, and kept very, very clean for obvious reasons. You’ll be hard-pressed to find better cruising conditions than these.

Most museums have tremendously wide corridors – ideal for self balancing scooter operation

You are also going to want to make sure that you have plenty of room for self balancing scooter operators to zip around this way and that, in that requires some pretty large interior spaces.

Most museums have tremendously wide and open rooms and corridor, with plenty of space for self balancing scooter operators to maneuver, to cruise, and to effortlessly pass one another.

On the flipside, you might not want people to be zipping around near delicate art installations, statues, or paintings

At the same time, people that own museums or prices art collections might not be all that excited about the idea of dozens (or even hundreds) of people flying around these installations on top of technology that they might not be completely comfortable controlling.

It may be a while until we see self balancing scooters rolled out and most museums, but the chances are that it’s going to happen sooner rather than later.

A Guide To The Bramah Tea And Coffee Museum In London

Bramah_Tea_and_Coffee_MuseumTea and later coffee helped to revolutionise how the western world approached it’s morning routine.  Now as ubiquitous as anything else in life, many people would be hard pressed to function without their morning caffeine.  Given the incredible history and importance tea and coffee play in our lives currently, few know more then just a little about its origin or purpose. These days it’s hard to care about the history when we have these push button coffee machines in our homes (like those at

The Bramah Tea and Coffee Museum in London hopes to rectify that by being a fantastic source for the history of England and the tea and coffee that has become a part of the daily routine.  Serving authentic British Leaf Tea, the museum provides records and memorabilia from centuries past, documenting the tea trade.  With more then 400 years of history to cover, the Bramah Tea and Coffee Museum also provides an opportunity for individuals to have their tea as well.  As a final note, the museum offers seminars taught by Edward Bramah regarding the history of the tea trade and a tasting session.


The Bramah Tea and Coffee Museum is London is only a two minute walk from London Bridge Station.  Its exact address is Bramah Museum of Tea And Coffee, 40 Southwark Street, London SE1 1UN.

Times Open

The Bramah Tea and Coffee Museum is open all week, from 10am to 6pm.  Exceptions include Christmas and Boxing Day.  In addition, check online before going to ensure that renovations have not temporarily closed down the museum.


The Bramah Tea and Coffee Museum costs 4 pounds for adults.  In addition, concessions cost 3.5 pounds.  Finally, the museum offers a family deal with a 10 pound charge for two parents and up to four children.  Finally, if you are considering a group of 20 or more, the museum asks that you call ahead so that they can make special arrangements.

What Are The Best Sports Museums In The UK?

The UK has an incredible number of sites for locals and tourists alike. In particular, if you are a sports fan, then the UK has you covered with sporting venues, teams, and even museums. With that in mind, lets take a brief tour of the UK and find the best sports museums in the country. From the biggest names in sports to those rarely heard about defining moments that led to the creation of your favorite team, these museums are sure to provide you with a great deal of entertainment and information. Even minor sports like rowing are represented here, this pleased me as I love to row on my Concept2 Model D.

The Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum


For aspiring tennis players everywhere, Wimbledon represents the culmination of a lifelong struggle to be the very best at the sport. The premiere venue for tennis in the country and arguably the world, the best tennis players from countless countries have met on these greens to compete against one another. In a sport where there are strict rules and proper decorum, there are still countless moments of incredible emotion and excitement.

The Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum captures all of this through their state-of-the-art-museum. Providing a range of tours, it has never been easier to see the stadium, courts, and the grounds. In addition, tours usually include trips to the pressroom, interview room, water gardens, and more. For any fan of Tennis, the Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum is a must.

The Chelsea Football Club Museum


The Chelsea Football Club Museum has a rich and colourful history dating back more then a hundred years to 1905. Visitors to the museum get to hear all about the legendary dog bite that led to the formation of the team, as well as the countless characters that have helped to define both the team and the sport as a whole. In addition to being a great place for adults, the Chelsea Football Club Museum is also great for children with its interactive exhibits. Whether you are a die hard Chelsea fan or are just interested in learning more about this interesting team and its role in shaping UK football, then this museum is the right place for you.

The World Rugby Museum At Twickenham

World Rugby Museum

While not nearly as popular as football or tennis, Rugby has none-the-less defined itself throughout the world as an incredibly competitive and challenging sport. With a great deal of emphasis on team unity and respect for the other team, the World Rugby Museum at Twickenham provides countless opportunities to relive Rugby’s past. The home of English Rugby, this museum provides a behind-the-scenes tour of the stadium, providing for guests an incredibly collection of memorabilia to look through. Finally, what tour would be complete without a trip to the England changing room?

The Marylebone Cricket Club Museum at Lord’s Cricket Ground

Lord’s Cricket Ground

Cricket, like many other sports popularised in England, has spread around the world and has found a particularly strong hold in India. Still going strong today, countless individuals enjoy the sport. At the Marylebone Cricket Club Museum at Lord’s Cricket Grounds, you can see incredible paintings and artefacts detailing the history of the sport. With more then 400 years worth of history to go through, it is no wonder people love visiting the museum and its grounds. As a final note, the museum is also home to a selection of some of the greatest moments in Cricket, providing enthusiasts and players alike a trip down memory lane.

The four suggestions for sports museums in UK only begin to cover how many sporting museums there are in the country. Whether it is a small museum hosted by your favourite football club or the countless other museum venues focusing on sports in the country, it is more then easy to design an entire vacation around seeing these various places.